Commission on the Intelligence of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction Seal Commission on the Intelligence of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction


Charles S. Robb

Charles S. Robb is a former Virginia Governor and U.S. Senator. As a Marine Corps officer during the 1960s, he commanded an infantry company in combat in Vietnam and, as a senator during the 1990s, he became the only member ever to serve simultaneously on all three national security committees.

Robb received his law degree from the University of Virginia, clerked on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, and practiced law with Williams and Connolly in the 1970s and Hunton and Williams in the 1980s. Since leaving public office he has been a Professor of Law and Public Policy at George Mason University, served as a Fellow at the Institute of Politics at Harvard and at the Marshall Wythe School of Law at The College of William & Mary, and Chaired the Board of Visitors at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Judge Laurence H. Silberman

Laurence Hirsch Silberman is a senior circuit judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. He was a member of the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. The intelligence court, created in 1978, is charged with overseeing sensitive law enforcement surveillance by the U.S. government.

Silberman has served as Under Secretary of Labor, Deputy U.S. Attorney General, and Ambassador to Yugoslavia. From 1981 to 1985 he was a member of both the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and the Department of Defense Policy Board. Silberman was appointed to the bench by President Reagan in 1985.


Richard C. Levin

Richard C. Levin, the Frederick William Beinecke Professor of Economics, was appointed the twenty-second President of Yale University in 1993. He received his B.A. from Stanford University in 1968 and studied politics and philosophy at Oxford University, where he earned a B.Litt. degree. In 1974 he received his Ph.D. from Yale and joined the Yale faculty. Before becoming president, he chaired the economics department and served as dean of the Graduate School.

Mr. Levin was a member of the President's Commission on the United States Postal Service and currently is a director of the Hewlett Foundation, Lucent Technologies, Satmetix, and the National Academy of Sciences' Board on Science, Technology and Economics Policy. He also chairs the board of AllLearn, a joint venture of Yale, Oxford, and Stanford Universities.

Senator John McCain

Senator John McCain of Arizona is the senior senator from his state and has served in that chamber since 1986. He began his political career in 1982 as a U.S. Congressman from Arizona. In 2000, he sought the Republican presidential nomination.

McCain serves as chairman of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, and he is a member of the Armed Services and Indian Affairs committees. In January 2004, McCain called for an independent inquiry into pre-war intelligence on Iraq.

Henry S. Rowen

Henry S. Rowen is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution. He is also Director emeritus of the Asia/Pacific Research Center at Stanford University and Professor of Public Policy and Management emeritus at the university's Graduate School of Business. He is currently doing research on regions of innovation and entrepreneurship throughout Asia and on economic and political topics in Asia.

From 1989 to 1991, Rowen was the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs in the U.S. Department of Defense. He was Chairman of the National Intelligence Council from 1981 to 1983, served as President of the RAND Corporation from 1968 to 1972 and was Assistant Director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget from 1965 to 1966.

Walter B. Slocombe

Walter B. Slocombe has held several high-level positions in the Department of Defense, including Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (1994 to 2001); Principal Deputy Under Secretary for Policy (1993 to 1994); Deputy Under Secretary for Policy Planning (1979 to 1981); and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Security Affairs (1977 to 1979). During May-November 2003 he was Senior Advisor to the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad for National Security and Defense.

Slocombe is currently a member of the Washington, D.C. law firm Caplin & Drysdale, chartered.

Admiral William O. Studeman (Ret.)

William "Bill" Studeman was deputy director of the CIA from 1992 to 1995. He has held several high-level intelligence positions, including director of the National Security Agency.

He is currently Vice President and Deputy General Manager for Intelligence and Information Superiority at Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, a $3.5 billion global defense contractor. He retired from the Navy in 1995.

Charles M. Vest

Charles M. Vest served as president of MIT from 1990 to 2004. He chaired the U.S. Department of Energy Task Force on the Future of Science Programs from 2002 to 2003.

From 1993 to 1994, Vest chaired the President's Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the International Space Station, and from 1994 to the present he served as a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

Judge Patricia Wald

Patricia Wald served from 1999 to 2001 as a judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at the Hague, Netherlands.

An expert in international humanitarian law, she served 20 years on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, including five years as chief judge. She was appointed by President Carter in 1979.


Lloyd Cutler

Lloyd Cutler, a founding partner of Wilmer Cutler Pickering LLP, served as counsel to Presidents Clinton and Carter.

Cutler was a member and chairman of the Quadrennial Commission on Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Salaries, and a member of the President's Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform in 1989.


John Scott Redd

Vice Admiral John S. “Scott” Redd served 36 years in the U. S. Navy, commanding eight organizations at sea from a destroyer to a fleet. He founded the Navy’s FIFTH Fleet in the Middle East in 1995 and served in several high level policy positions in the Pentagon, including Director of Strategic Plans and Policy (J-5) on the Joint Staff.

Since retiring in 1998 he has served as CEO of a high-tech education company and as Deputy Administrator/COO of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in Iraq.

General Counsel

Stewart Baker

General Counsel. Partner with the Washington , D.C. law firm of Steptoe and Johnson, LLP. Served as general counsel to the National Security Agency, deputy general counsel, Department of Education, law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, law clerk to the Honorable Frank M. Coffin, U.S. Court of Appeals, First Circuit, and the Honorable Shirley M. Hufstedler , U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. Also served on the Markle Foundation Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, a Defense Science Board panel on Information Warfare, and the President's Export Council Subcommittee on Encryption.

Brett Gerry

Associate General Counsel. Prior to working for the Commission was an associate at the Boston law firm Goodwin Procter. Graduate of Yale Law School and Colgate University , is a former law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy and Judge Laurence H. Silberman of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit.

Michael Leiter

Associate General Counsel. Assistant United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. Served as law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer and Judge Michael Boudin , Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. Former U.S. Naval Flight Officer.


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John Antonitis

Intelligence Professional. Senior Intelligence Officer assigned to the Office of the Chief of Staff, Defense Intelligence Agency. Thirty years experience in military intelligence, counter-intelligence and enforcement policy, plans and operations.

Shelley Lea Bennett

Intelligence Professional. Retired U.S. Army Reserve Colonel with 30 years experience in intelligence, special operations, and congressional affairs. Former Chief of Congressional Affairs for the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe ; Director of Intelligence, Coalition Task Force, Balkans; and, Legislative Assistant to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.

James Bruce

Director, Capabilities Assessment. Senior Intelligence Service Officer. Recently served in the National Intelligence Council as Vice Chairman, DCI Foreign Denial and Deception Committee, and as Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Science and Technology. During 22 years at the CIA, drafted and managed national intelligence estimates and has held senior analytical and management positions in the CIA's Intelligence and Operations Directorates.

Belinda Canton

Intelligence Professional. Eighteen years experience as an analyst and manager in CIA's Directorate of Intelligence. Twelve years experience working counter-proliferation issues, including a focus on export controls and procurement issues. Specialties include information systems design and advanced analytic methodologies. Ph.D. in international relations.

Thomas Chappell

Executive Assistant. Served as information systems management, operations coordinator, office manager, network engineer in private industry.

Felix J. Ciarlo

Strategic Planning and Business Process Analysis Professional. Twenty years of experience supporting DOD, Federal agencies, and Fortune 500 business reengineering and change management programs. Former career U.S. Army officer serving in various infantry command, special operations, Army DCSOPS (Pentagon), and major command resource management assignments.

Elbridge Colby

Intelligence Professional. Analyst with government background in Middle Eastern affairs and management reform. Served with Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad and with the U.S. State Department on Israeli-Palestinian issues, among other assignments. Graduate of Harvard College with degree in History.

Sean J. Coleman

Intelligence Professional. Captain , U. S. Naval Reserve, with 25 years experience in Naval Intelligence. Tours include: the Fleet, the Office of Naval Intelligence, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (J2) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (ASD/C3I). Current reserve assignment is as the Commander, Reserve Intelligence Area Eighteen, an area that covers all of New England.

Jeffrey Cooper

Consultant. Currently serving in private industry. Previously served as Director, Strategic Analysis, in private industry, Special Assistant to the Secretary, Department of Energy, and as a member of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.

Dylan Cors

Intelligence Professional.   Attorney with the Central Intelligence Agency. Previously served on detail from CIA to the National Security Council and worked as attorney in private practice in Washington , D.C.

Michael R. Davis

Intelligence Professional. Thirteen years as linguist and analyst at the National Security Agency, including six years experience working issues of complex, collaborative analysis; technology support to analysis; and organizational design to support analysis. Three years detailed to DCI's Nonproliferation Center supporting WMD issues and analysis.

Sean Davis

Intelligence Professional. 2004 graduate of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, with concentration in international security. Wrote master's thesis on intelligence uncertainty and counter-proliferation. Previously worked in post-war Kosovo for the United Nations and the International Rescue Committee.

Marsha Dimel

Human Resources Liaison. Formerly a human resources manager at the National Security Council, Executive Office of the President.

Sarah Erwin

Executive Assistant. Currently with the Central Intelligence Agency assigned to the National Reconnaissance Office.

Andrew Fialdini

Intelligence Professional. Senior Intelligence Officer within Defense HUMINT, Defense Intelligence Agency. Most recently served as Chief of Counterterrorism, Iraq Survey Group, Baghdad , Iraq . Twenty year career intelligence officer.

Dan Flynn

Intelligence Professional. Senior analyst with the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence responsible for assessing a variety of issues related to the future of warfare. During 22 years at the CIA, has specialized in the analysis of foreign weapons, technologies, and military innovations, and in intelligence collection issues.

Kenneth Geide

Intelligence Professional. Currently a Special Advisor to the Director, DoD Counterintelligence Field Activity. Retired as a FBI Senior Executive after 30 years of service. Served as Agent in investigative, analytical and supervisory positions in the field and at headquarters. Chief of the Economic Counterintelligence Program, Deputy Director of the National Infrastructure Protection Center.

Irvin Gray

Director, Staff Operations, Administration and Finance. Former U.S. Naval Officer with four years experience in Theater Ballistic Missile Defense, Joint Tactical Ground Stations, and the Defense Support Program.

Kate Heinzelman

Legal Research Assistant. Recently graduated from Yale University with a degree in Ethics, Politics and Economics. Interned as a political analyst authoring intelligence assessments. Will attend Yale Law School .

John Hoffman

Intelligence Professional. CIA officer assigned to the National Reconnaissance Office, IMINT Systems Acquisition and Operations Directorate. Seventeen years experience in the tasking, collection, processing, and dissemination of National Technical Means (NTM) imagery.

Joseph Holthaus

Security Manager. Twenty-five year career officer with the Central Intelligence Agency.

Will Hopkins

Intelligence Professional. Currently serving as a training program manager at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. More than 18 years experience as an imagery intelligence analyst and manager.

Paul Johnson

Intelligence Professional. Career intelligence officer, currently serving as Director of the Center for the Study of Intelligence at the CIA.

Art Jones

Chief of Staff. Retired U.S. Navy captain with 30 years in Naval Intelligence. Former executive officer for Director, Defense Intelligence Agency and military assistant to Director, Defense HUMINT Service

James C. King

Consultant. Retired Lieutenant General, U.S. Army. Currently serving as Senior Executive Vice President for National Security Affairs in private industry. Served as Director, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Director of Intelligence (J2) Joint Chiefs of Staff, Director of Intelligence (J2) U.S. Central Command, and Associate Deputy Director for Operations, National Security Agency.

Timothy Kochman

Staff Information Technology Manager. Former special projects manager with the Defense Information Systems Agency.

Carl Kropf

Public Affairs Officer. Previously served as public affairs officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency, U.S. Forces Korea , U.S. Army Europe and the Department of the Army. Retired U.S. Army colonel.

Philip Kunsberg

Associate Deputy for Plans. Attorney with more than 20 years experience in intelligence and related fields, including law enforcement (NY County Rackets Bureau), the CIA, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy's Field Intelligence Element, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Thomas Lehrman

Intelligence Professional. Foreign Affairs Officer at the Department of State with a background in counter-proliferation and experience on the Proliferation Security Initiative. Formerly, co-founder and co-Chief Executive Officer of an information services and consulting company serving the financial services industry.

Scott Levinson

Intelligence Professional. Currently supporting National Reconnaissance Office SIGINT and MASINT activities. Former U.S. Air Force officer with extensive experience in development, acquisition, and operations of defense and intelligence systems.

Justin Longcor

Facilities and Logistics Manager. Former administrative assistant and purchaser for Anteon Intelligence Systems Group.

Jerry McEntire

Intelligence Professional. Senior intelligence officer with the Defense Intelligence Agency's Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Directorate. Twenty years experience in MASINT operations, research and development and acquisition of new capabilities. Previously served as a career Air Force officer.

Laurence McQuillan

Spokesperson. Spent more than 25 years as a journalist covering national security issues and the White House for several news organizations, including Reuters News Service and USA Today.

Robert Morean

Associate Deputy Director for Review. Currently serving with the CIA's Office of General Counsel and most recently was CIA liaison to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States ("9/11 Commission"). Previously was an Assistant U.S. Attorney in the Hawaii District and an active duty U.S. Navy JAG Corps officer, and is currently a U.S. Navy JAG Corps reservist working for the International Law Division of the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

Mike Munson

Deputy Director for Plans. Former Deputy Director for the Defense Intelligence Agency, Director of Intelligence Program Review and Evaluation ASD(C3I), Deputy Director for National Support, National Reconnaissance Office, and study director for the congressionally chartered National Defense Panel.

Peter Murray

Intelligence Professional. Retired Special Agent from the FBI's Washington Field Office, International Counterterrorism Program. Was the lead investigator for the 1988 Pan Am Flight 103 bombing investigation.

Dennis Nagy

Intelligence Professional. Former DIA/OSD Senior Executive with 28 years experience in intelligence analysis and management and C 4 ISR programs and management. DIA Deputy Director and Executive Director of the Agency; Director of the Research Directorate; Deputy Chief of Intelligence Production; and, senior analyst and estimator on Soviet strategic nuclear forces and nuclear policy.

Julia Nesheiwat

Intelligence Professional. Currently a strategic intelligence officer with U.S. Central Command. Served in Iraq as the operations and intelligence daily briefer for the Coalition Provisional Authority Administrator and Commander, Combined Joint Task Force 7. Liaison to the Iraq Governing Council, Ministry of Defense, and worked on various intelligence crisis action teams with other agencies throughout the Middle East .

Gordon Oehler

Deputy Director for Review. Served 25 years at the CIA in a variety of technical and managerial positions. Directed the CIA's Non-Proliferation Center and is recognized as one of the nation's leading experts on technology, proliferation, weapons of mass destruction.

William Piekney

Intelligence Professional. Former senior executive in CIA's Operations Directorate, chief of the East Asia and the Africa Divisions. Served as DCI representative to Secretary of State's Accountability Review Board for 1995 Riyadh bombing, lead Intelligence Community-wide study on WMD.

Lois Ponikvar

Executive Assistant. Currently with the Central Intelligence Agency assigned to the National Reconnaissance Office.

Glenn D. Preston

Intelligence Professional. National Reconnaissance Office SIGINT Directorate, Systems Engineering and Technology Office. More than 20 years experience in the design, development and operations of SIGINT systems.

John Quattrocki

Intelligence Professional. Currently, executive officer of the National Counterintelligence Executive. Retired Senior Executive Service officer after twenty-two years as an FBI Special Agent. Served as a Director for Intelligence matters on the National Security Council staff from 2002 to 2004; Deputy Group Chief of Global Operations at CIA; and, as FBI Special Agent in investigative, analytical and supervisory positions in the field and at FBI headquarters.

Doreen Romero

Executive Assistant. Previously served as project team coordinator supporting various key Government Program Offices providing engineering, security, logistical and office management support. Held various positions in private industry supporting intelligence and military programs.

Steven Schanzer

Intelligence Professional. Former DIA Senior Executive Service officer with 20 years experience in Intelligence and DOD. Served as Deputy Director Information Systems, DIA, Acquisition Director, Defense Information Systems Agency, Director of the CIA Community Management Staff's Intelligence Systems Secretariat, and Director of the Defense Security Service.

Andrew Shepard

Intelligence Professional. Detailed to the Commission from the U.S. State Department, Diplomatic Telecommunications Service, following a 30-year career with the Central Intelligence Agency and Community Management Staff.

Teresa L. Smetzer

Intelligence Professional. Seventeen years as a proliferation analyst, manager and strategic planner at CIA, including four years as Group Chief at the DCI's Nonproliferation Center. Experience leading innovative approaches to aligning information technology to the business of analysis. Currently a consultant in the private sector.

Kelley Brooke Snyder

Intelligence Professional. Former U.S. Department of Justice Bristow Fellow and clerk for the Honorable M. Blane Michael, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Served for eight years as an analyst at the CIA's Directorate of Intelligence.

Suzanne Spaulding

Consultant. Nearly 20 years experience working national security issues in both the legislative and executive branches, including serving as Executive Director of national commissions on terrorism and proliferation, senior staff positions with House and Senate intelligence committees, six years at CIA, and work with state government and the private sector.

Michael Stransky

Intelligence Professional. Served as weapons proliferation analyst detailed to the U.S. Department of Energy's Russian Nuclear Materials Security Task Force. Former attorney with Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher .

Robert Surrette

Intelligence Professional. Currently a senior intelligence service officer on detail from the National Reconnaissance Office to the Office of the Senior Acquisition Executive in the Office of the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management.

Patrick T. Toohey

Intelligence Professional. Retired U.S. Navy SEAL Captain with 30 years service in special operations.

Monica Trachsel

Intelligence professional. Special Agent at the FBI's Washington Field Office, Counterterrorism Division. Investigator for the 1998 Embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.

Marc Viola

Intelligence Professional. Advanced the employment of Measurement and Signature intelligence (MASINT) at the National Reconnaissance Office and the Defense Intelligence Agency. Currently an adjunct MASINT faculty member at the Joint Military Intelligence College. A former military officer, served for almost twelve years in various U.S. Air Force intelligence positions.

Samuel Visner

Consultant. Currently serving as Director of Strategy and Business Development, Research and Intelligence in private industry. A long-time national security and intelligence professional, served as Chief, Signals Intelligence Programs from 2001 to 2003 at the National Security Agency, where he led a number of the Agency’s transformation programs.

Nancy Wheeler

Intelligence Professional. Senior intelligence officer on detail from the Intelligence Community's Chief Information Office (IC CIO). Thirty years experience in the Intelligence Community and with the Department of Defense, primarily in requirements and information management, planning and programming for National Agencies and in support of Combatant Commands.

Will Wilber

Security Analyst. Previously served as Special Investigator for the Office of Personnel Management and an Equal Employment Opportunity Analyst for the National Weather Service. Retired U.S. Marine Corps Master Gunnery Sergeant.

Edward Wittenstein

Intelligence Professional. Recent Yale University graduate with a B.A. in Ethics, Politics, and Economics (Cum Laude). Served with the Monterey Institute's Center for Nonproliferation Studies in Kazakhstan , and the Henry L. Stimson Center 's Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project in Washington , D.C.

Shirley Woodward

Intelligence Professional. Attorney formerly in private practice in Washington , D.C. Former law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and Judge Laurence H. Silberman of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. Previously served in the CIA's Directorate of Operations.

Donald Wurzel

Intelligence Professional. Former Director, National Security Studies and Analysis Program with a private sector firm providing support to the Intelligence Community and the Department of Defense. Previously served as a career Naval Officer.