2. Vice President Gore, "Remarks by the President and Vice President on Presenting the National Performance Review," the Rose Garden, the White House, Sept. 7, 1993.
3. Reinventing Government: Six Month Status Report, March 7, 1994, p. 2.
4. "Reinvention Reading," Reinvention Roundtable, Feb. 18, 1994, p. 6. Management guru Tom Peters offers a similar conclusion in his Foreword to a commercial version of the NPR report. In general, scholars viewed the report with caution, but several also praised it. For example, in a report for the Brookings Institution, Donald F. Kettl observed, "The NPR has the potential, together with the New Deal and the Hoover Commissions, to be one of the three more important administrative initiatives of the twentieth century" (p. 4) and "In sum, the NPR, in its first year, accomplished far more than cynics suggested might be possible" (p. vii). See Reinventing Government? Appraising the National Performance Review, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, August 1994). Similarly, James Q. Wilson noted in a recent lecture, "In my judgment, the Gore Report is the best White House statement I have ever read about what citizens really want from government administrators and how, in theory, that can be delivered." See "Reinventing Public Administration," the John Gaus Lecture, American Political Science Association (September 2, 1994), p. 18.
5. U.S. General Accounting Office, Management Reform: GAO's Comments on the National Performance Review's Recommendations, GAO/OCG-94-1, December 1993, cited in Reinventing Government: Six Month Status Report, March 7, 1994, p. 2.
6. William J. Perry, NPR Defense Department event transcript, March 28, 1994, p. 5.
7. President Clinton, "Remarks by the President and the Vice President During Reinventing Government Event," the Roosevelt Room, the White House, March 3, 1994.
8. Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 1995, p. 157.
2. Interview with Dan Beard, July 19, 1994.
3. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, "Biography of Daniel P. Beard."
4. The following discussion is based on interviews with Beard and NPR's Doug Farbrother; a transcript of NPR's Interior Department event; President Clinton's and Vice President Gore's remarks at the White House, March 3, 1994; and a Feb. 24, 1994, memo from Jody Kusek, the Interior Department's NPR implementation manager, to Elaine Kamarck and Bob Stone.
5. Roger Patterson, "Remarks by the President and the Vice President During Reinventing Government Event," the Roosevelt Room, the White House, March 3, 1994, p. 3.
6. National Academy of Public Administration, Coping with Catastrophe: Building an Emergency Management System to Meet People's Needs in Natural and Manmade Disasters, February 1993, p. ix. The report continues: "[A] small independent agency could coordinate the federal response to major natural disasters, as well as integrate other emergency management functions, but only if the White House and Congress take significant steps to make it a viable institution. FEMA has been ill-served by congressional and White House neglect, a fragmented statutory charter, irregular funding, and the uneven quality of its political executives appointed by past presidents. In short, the agency remains an institution not yet built."
7. Witt used a lottery to choose which lower-level staff to bring to Washington.
8. Certificate, signed by James Lee Witt.
9. Lochhead, Carolyn, "Stark Withdraws Bill to End FEMA," San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 16, 1993, p. A8.
10. Similarly, Veterans Affairs Secretary Jesse Brown closed the VA's executive dining room soon after taking office, saying, "A rank-based dining room leaves a bad taste in my mouth." See "Rank Hath No Privilege in VA Mess Hall," Washington Post, Jan. 26, 1994, p. x.
11. Much of the following material comes from the transcript of NPR's Labor event, June 20, 1994.
12. Vice President Gore, From Red Tape to Results, p. 49.
13. U.S. General Accounting Office, Multiple Employment Training Programs: Overlap Among Programs Raises Questions About Efficiency, GAO/HEHS-94-193, July 1994, p. 2.
14. Del Valle, Christina, "The Job-Training Squabbles: Is This Any Way to Reinvent Government?" Business Week, Aug. 1, 1994, p. 37.
15. Robert Reich, NPR Labor event transcript, June 20, 1994, p. 17.
16. Gary De Rosa, Labor Department dislocated worker specialist in Seattle, Labor event transcript, June 20, 1994, p. 14. De Rosa went on to say, "I think out of crisis comes opportunity. I think the crisis that the Northwest was facing, particularly the Puget Sound area, provided an opportunity to reinvent the way the system operated. There was enough of an impetus to say, "We can't operate the way we've been operating. We've got to find a more effective way to structure these programs, for the good of the workers that were impacted." "
17. Paulette Alston, NPR Labor event transcript, July 20, 1994, p. 13.
18. Karen Ayers, NPR Labor event transcript, June 20, 1994, p. 15.
19. Zollinger, John, "Wake-Up Call," National Journal, June 11, 1994, p. 1345. Some of the following material also comes from this article, particularly the next two paragraphs.
20. Zollinger, John, "Wake-Up Call," p. 1348.
21. People, Processes and Partnerships: A Report on the Customs Service for the 21st Century, July 21, 1994, p. 6.
22. Much of the information in this box comes from the transcript of NPR's Treasury event, March 28, 1994.
23. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Reinventing HUD, March 3, 1994.
24. National Academy of Public Administration, Renewing HUD: A Long-Term Agenda for Effective Performance, Summary Report, July 1994.
25. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Reinventing HUD, p. 1.
26. Memorandum from Aylin Gonen, "Possible Reinvention Activities to Highlight in NPR Report," Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of the Secretary, July 21, 1994.
2. Vice President Gore, NPR's Social Security Administration event transcript, June 6, 1994, p. 7.
3. William J. Clinton, "Executive Order 12862: Setting Customer Service Standards," Sept. 11, 1993.
4. A Vision for Government Information Technology Services and the National Information Infrastructure, Government Information Technology Services (GITS) Working Group, July 1994, p. 1. Much of the following material comes from this report.
5. "Mapping the Way to Better Customer Service," NPR Success Story Library.
6. This is no small order. As the EBT report notes, the annual flow of funds for Visa, the nation's most widely used credit card, is about $175 billion to $180 billion. See From Paper to Electronics: Creating a Benefit Delivery System that Works Better and Costs Less, Report of the Electronic Benefits Transfer Task Force, May 1994, pp. 5, 8.
7. Al Watkins, NPR Interior event transcript, May 31, 1994, p. 9.
8. Peter Rogers, NPR Commerce event transcript, April 6, 1994, p. 41. The transcript provides much of the material for this box.
9. Ronald H. Brown, NPR Commerce event transcript, April 6, 1994, p. 57.
10. McAllister, Bill, "Millions of Letters Undelivered," Washington Post, July 20, 1994, p. A1. This article and others that appeared in the Post over the next several days provided much of the material for this section about the Postal Service's problems.
2. The information about Red River comes from "Labor-Management Partnership Across the federal government," a compilation of examples from the National Partnership Council, as of June 17, 1994, pp. 5-6, and Shoop, Tom, "Brave New Leadership," Government Executive, July 1994, pp. 23-30.
3. Vice President Gore, From Red Tape to Results, p. 65.
4. Harris, Christy, "Unlikely Partners Talk Teamwork," Federal Times, July 18, 1994, p. 1.
5. "IRS Partnership Expands," Government Executive, July 1994, p. 8.
6. "Partnerships Roll Out," Government Executive, une 1994, p. 8.
7. Causey, Mike, "A Union Response," Washington Post, April 25, 1994, p. D2.
8. General Accounting Office, Federal Labor Relations: A Program in Need of Reform, GAO/GGD-91-101, July 1991, p. 2 and throughout.
9. David Luther, National Partnership Council meeting transcript, Nov. 19, 1993, p. 6.
10. The following examples, and much of the language, comes from Office of Management and Budget, "List of GPRA Pilot Project Designations," Jan. 31, 1994.
11. Cabinet secretaries who have signed an agreement include HUD Secretary Henry G. Cisneros (as discussed in the HUD write-up in the "Culture Change" section of this report), Labor Secretary Robert B. Reich, Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, Veterans Affairs Secretary Jesse Brown, and Transportation Secretary Federico Peasa The heads of other agencies include Erskine B. Bowles, administrator of the Small Business Administration, and Roger Johnson, administrator of the General Services Administration. Much of the following discussion about performance agreements comes from the agreements themselves as well as from Kamarck, Elaine, "Presidential Performance Agreements--A Vehicle for Obtaining Accountability," June 14, 1994.
12. The following discussion is based on Vice President Gore, "The New Job of the Federal Executive," Remarks to the Marver H. Bernstein Symposium on Government Reform, Georgetown University, March 29, 1994.
13. Kamarck, Elaine, "Presidential Performance Agreements--A Vehicle for Obtaining Accountability," June 14, 1994.
14. Much of the discussion that follows comes from "Reducing the Federal Workforce: The Real Story Behind the 252,000," Reinvention Roundtable, v. 1, no. 1, Feb. 18, 1994, pp. 1, 5.
15. Barr, Stephen, "A Management Tool that Managers Control," Washington Post, March 28, 1994, p. A19.
16. "Statement on Signing the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994," Administration of William J. Clinton, 1994, p. 651.
17. Barr, Stephen, "A Management Tool that Managers Control," Washington Post, March 28, 1994, p. A19.
18. Inspectors General Vision Statement, January 1994.
19. Vice President Gore, Office of Personnel Management event transcript, July 13, 1994, p. 5.
20. For a discussion of GSA and OMB, see the next chapter.
21. Barr, Stephen, "OPM Turns Over 10,000 New Leaves," Washington Post, Jan. 28, 1994, p. A21. See also Barr, Stephen, "U.S. Personnel Manual May End Up in Trash," Washington Post, Dec. 20, 1993, p. A23.
22. Barr, Stephen, "Adieu, SF-171," Washington Post, May 9, 1994, p. A15. See also Barr, Stephen, "OPM Abolishes Form 171 to Ease Application Process," Washington Post, June 22, 1994, p. A19.
23. Vice President Gore, Office of Personnel Management event transcript, July 13, 1994, p. 12.
24. Barr, Stephen, "Downsizing Reinvention?" Washington Post, May 2, 1994, p. A17.
2. Military Specification Bakery Mixes, Prepared, MIL-B-44275A, Sept. 21, 1992, p. 26.
3. Rod Burke, NPR Defense event transcript, March 28, 1994, p. 11.
4. Wilett Bunton, NPR Defense event transcript, March 28, 1994, p. 17.
5. Remarks of Sen. John Glenn, D-Ohio, at the White House briefing, Oct. 26, 1993, announcing the procurement changes.
6. Federal News Service transcript, Remarks of Vice President Gore, White House Briefing, Room 450, Old Executive Office Building, Oct. 26, 1993, p. 3.
7. Federal News Service Transcript, Remarks of Lt. Col. Brad Orton, White House Briefing, Room 450, Old Executive Office Building, Oct. 26, 1993, p. 7.
8. Towell, Pat, "Bill To Streamline Purchasing Gains House Approval," Congressional Quarterly, July 2, 1994, p. 1822.
9. Towell, Pat, "Bill to Streamline Purchasing Gains House Approval," p. 1822.
10. Chuck Davis, NPR General Services Administration event transcript, June 17, 1994, p. 30. The material for this section comes from the transcript as well as "A Reinvented GSA Prepares for Competition," from NPR's file of success stories.
11. Mark Koehler, NPR GSA event transcript, June 17, 1994, p. 37.
12. Panetta, Leon E., and Rivlin, Alice M., Office Memorandum No. 94-16, OMB, March 1, 1994, p. 1.
13. Kettl, Donald F., Reinventing Government? Appraising the National Performance Review, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, August 1994) pp. 41-42.
14. The information and quotes come from "Remarks by the President and the Vice President During Reinventing Government Event, The Roosevelt Room, The White House, March 3, 1994, p. 5.
15. See U.S. Small Business Administration, "LowDoc Loan Program: Fact Sheet," and Litvan, Laura M., "Some Rest For The Paperwork-Weary," Nation's Business, June, 1994, p. 38.
16. This and the two preceding paragraphs came from Browner, Carol M., "The Common Sense Initiative: A New Generation of Environmental Protection," Center for National Policy Newsmaker Luncheon, July 20, 1994.
17. Other organizations include the Army Corps of Engineers, the Agriculture Department's Soil Conservation Service, Florida's Marine Research Institute, the South Florida Water Management District, and Bishop State Community College in Mobile, Alabama.
18. Internal briefing materials, Environmental Protection Agency.
19. Bruce Babbitt, NPR Interior Department event transcript, May 31, 1994, p. 1. The transcript from that event and a Feb. 24, 1994, memo from Interior's NPR implementation manager Jody Kusek to Elaine Kamarck and Bob Stone provide much of the material for the ensuing discussion.
20. The council includes deputy assistant secretaries, deputy bureau directors (career and political), and representatives from the policy, legal, finance, and budget offices. It addresses such strategic issues as streamlining plans, strategic planning and customer service plans, and departmental training in reengineering and quality management. See the Feb. 24, 1994, memo from Jody Kusek, Interior's NPR implementation manager, to Elaine Kamarck and Bob Stone.
21. Much of the material that follows comes from "Talking Points for National Rural Development Partnership Conference," Washington, D.C., April 13, 1994.
22. William J. Clinton, Memorandum to the Vice President and 17 senior Administration officials, Sept. 9, 1993.
23. Remarks by Vice President Al Gore at the Kennedy School Forum, Dec. 6, 1993, p. 12.
24. "National Rural Development Partnership," Mission Statement, January 1994.
25. "National Rural Development Partnership," January 1994.
26. "Success Stories from the National Rural Development Partnership," Attachment A.
2. The following material comes from the Mid-Session Review of the 1995 Budget, July 1994; congressional testimony earlier this year by Leon E. Panetta, then OMB's director, and Alice M. Rivlin, then OMB's deputy director and now its director; and various other sources.
3. Quoted in Panetta, Leon E. "Hearing on the Fiscal Year 1995 Budget," House Budget Committee, Feb. 9, 1994, p. 5.
4. For explanations of this argument, see Friedman, Benjamin, Day of Reckoning: The Consequences of American Economic Policy Under Reagan and After (New York: Random House, 1988).
5. Those programs are funded each year through appropriations bills.
6. The following figures are for outlays--that is, actual spending--rather than budget authority, which is the authority to spend money.
7. Quoted in Rauch, Jonathan, Demosclerosis (New York: Times Books, 1994), p. 205.
8. A program under which individuals receive benefits based on some criteria, such as age or income. Perhaps the best-known entitlement is Social Security.
9. Vice President Gore, From Red Tape to Results, pp. 94-5.
10. Hager, George, "House Passes Strong Rescissions Bill," Congressional Quarterly, July 16, 1994, p. 1909.
11. United States Congressional Budget Office, Reducing the Deficit Spending and Revenue Options, Washington, D.C., February 1993, p. 104.
12. Feingold, Russ, "Close Down that School," Washington Post, April 12, 1994, p. A19.
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