Look for this sign and the key words listed below to identify items in this section for each topic listed.
|Key Word||Topic(s)||Key Word||Topic(s)|
|account||Accountability||local||Local Focus or Specific Local Case Studies|
|bench||Benchmarking / Best Practices||manage||Performance Management|
|budget||Performance-Based Budgeting / Financial Management||measure||Measures / Performance Measurement|
|customer||Customer Surveys / Customer Satisfaction||mfr||General Managing for Results|
|federal||Federal Focus or Specific Federal Case Studies||report||Reporting|
|international||International Focus or Specific International Case Studies||state||State Focus or Specific State Case Studies|
Municipal Benchmarks explores the design of practical performance measurement systems, the improvement of existing systems, and the establishment of local performance standards. The book prepares readers for the initial stages of performance assessment by presenting relevant national standards and actual performance targets and performance results from a sample of city governments. Call 805-499-9774 to order.
The authors surveyed the experiences of several hundred state agencies with strategic planning. Areas covered include the history of strategic planning within each agency, the types of activities included in the strategic planning process, the involvement of agency personnel and others in the process, the factors affecting the decision to use strategic planning in the agency, the primary objectives of the planning process, and the importance of strategic planning in accomplishing significant organizational outcomes. Models of strategic planning are described in the article as are strategic plan and budget linkages and the positive outcomes resulting from the strategic planning process.
This article defines the most widely used types of planning (strategic, tactical, operational, and comprehensive) but focuses on two alternative planning approaches that have become vital in today's environment of rapid and unpredictable change: scenario planning and contingency planning. Scenario planning "defines a set of future events or circumstances that would affect the organization's performance." Contingency planning "involves the preparation of a course of action to meet a situation that may not be expected, but that, if it occurs, will have a significant impact (positive or negative) on the organization." The authors discuss the benefits and use of both types of planning and also identify some weaknesses and criticisms that have arisen. The article offers organizations a method for coping with an uncertain and unpredictable environment.
The featured articles address technical, behavioral, and procedural aspects in measuring performance. The key learning points emphasized cover the need to: set up valid, legitimate, and functional measurement systems; focus on the performance of the individual manager and his or her effect on the performance of the organization; and institutionalize performance measurement by linking it to the budget.
The author offers a how-to approach to linking the strategic plan with the budget where "the programs and projects in the operating budget must be related to the goals and objectives stated in comprehensive strategic plans in order to accomplish the goals outlined in those plans." High-level details about strategic plans, program and project evaluation, strategies and budgets, and accountability are included in this guide.
Based on its surveys of 16 cities, the Chicago Civic Federation here reports on a broad range of strategies used by these cities to cut costs and increase efficiency in city government. The Federation's researchers covered four strategies: outsourcing, competitive contracting, restructuring, and employee innovation. To request a copy of the report, contact the Federation at 312-341-9603.
This book sheds light on how to apply total quality management (TQM) in the real world of government organizations; it shows how to introduce TQM, overcome barriers to change, and make TQM a success story for any government agency. The authors provide case examples that detail what organizational changes need to be implemented when TQM is introduced in government agencies. Specific cases covered include the U.S. Air Force, the Treasury Department, the Patent and Trademark Office, and the New York City Department of Sanitation. The book also includes charts and diagrams that show concretely how to apply TQM concepts and techniques in any governmental unit.
As competition for limited resources among activities intensifies, it has become critical for administrators to report on program results and outcomes. This performance information becomes a tool to help decisionmakers weigh the costs and benefits of taking funds from some programs in order to add new funds to others. To illustrate this point, the authors use the criminal justice system as an example of a policy that has resulted in enormous costs yet has failed to meet public expectations. Increasingly, the authors note, "the public understands that a dollar spent on corrections is a dollar not spent on other government services." By implementing accountability and performance reporting, program choices can be made that meet demands for efficiency and effectiveness.
This article presents a set of underlying assumptions, proposed terminology, and a methodology for developing and reporting performance measurements. Definitions of measurement terms, including outputs, outcomes, efficiency, and impact, are provided. A six-step process in performance measurement is discussed and highlighted with exhibits and examples. These steps are: (1) identify missions, goals, objectives and targets; (2) identify indicators and measures; (3) measure achievement of mission, goals, objectives, and targets; (4) analyze the results; (5) interpret the results; and (6) report performance measurement results.
This guidebook offers an overview and definition of performance measures, defined here as measures that reflect the contribution of public and private agencies toward important results, for policies and programs serving children and their families. It identifies the characteristics of an effective performance measurement system and offers a road map for those trying to create and implement such a system. To order, contact The Finance Project at 202-628-4200.
This guidebook provides an overview of how to identify desired results for children and their families as well as how to select indicators that measure whether these results are being achieved. Defining results and indicators is the first step in transforming management, budgeting, planning, and accountability systems to emphasize results rather than inputs. To order, contact the Finance Project at 202-628-4200.
This paper outlines ways for public officials to restructure budgets so that they promote important outcomes for children and their families and shift resources away from remediation and toward prevention. It is intended to set a framework for subsequent "second generation" papers and studies, including the Finance Project's subsequent publications, A Guide to Results and Indicators and A Guide to Developing and Using Performance Measures. To order, contact the Finance Project at 202-628-4200.
This special report on the practice of performance measurement emphasizes methods, procedures, and practical applications (what to do, how to do it, and examples of what works). Its topics include an overview of performance measurement, public sector benchmarking, ways to make performance measurement more useful to public managers, the importance of organizational culture in performance measurement, and case studies.
This practical guide shows how to benchmark for best practices in the public sector. It shows public officials and administrators at all levels of government (federal, state, and local) how to identify best practices and implement them in their organizations. Cases, examples, and vignettes are included.
"Strategic planning and performance measurement are only part of what it takes to make government work. Managing the people responsible for the delivery of services is the missing link of reinventing government." The author suggests and explains the following steps to forge this link: (1) create learning in the organization and create learning organizations, (2) define more clearly the roles and performance standards for all jobs in the organization, (3) teach all managers management practices that work for the organization, and (4) hold people accountable through measurement of their individual work as well as their team work.
This author, currently director of Milwaukee's Department of Administration, was the city budget and management director during the implementation of the integrated strategic planning and budgeting process (System 94). In this article, she describes how Milwaukee moved away from the traditional governmental budgeting focus on changes in inputs from year to year and embraced a new system that focuses on results and outcomes. The objectives of System 94 were to focus more attention on strategies and longer time horizons, and less on tactics and the short term; shift the emphasis from departmental issues and needs to those of the city's residents; give departmental managers more flexibility in devising strategies to reach their objectives; and shift the emphasis from inputs to outcomes. The article outlines the system's key elements, explains the many issues that had to be resolved as the process was implemented, and offers lessons learned on why the system worked.
Seamless Government tells how to reengineer government agencies to meet customer needs "seamlessly" in a smooth, effortless, responsive manner. A step-by-step approach for reengineering is provided that explains how to assess, design, and implement radical changes in the way government does business and how to overcome resistance along the way. Using case examples from all levels of government, this book shows how public managers can achieve extraordinary results by organizing around desired outcomes rather than around activities or functions.
These abridged conference proceedings document the discussions of the second Managing for Results conference held in November 1995 at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs in Austin, Texas. A full spectrum of issues relating to performance measurement was addressed at the conference by leading practitioners from around the world. Topics included: Innovations in Performance Measurement; Using Performance Measures for Strategic Planning; Measuring the Unmeasurable; Citizen Surveys; Using Performance Measures for Program Evaluation, Performance Reviews, and Auditing; Using Performance Measures for Legislation and Determining Policy; Training in Measures Development and Use; Maintaining Performance Measurement Systems' Integrity and Reliability; and Citizen Focus: Accountability in Government. To request a copy of the conference proceedings, contact the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box Y, Austin, TX 78713-8925, 512-471-4218 (phone) or email@example.com (e-mail).
This document, available on the Internet, is a useful overall reference to benchmarking. Various forms of benchmarking are defined. Discusses why to choose benchmarking, when to benchmark, and what to benchmark. An eight-step process is detailed on how to do benchmarking. Tips are provided on how to compare performance measures to best practices, how to apply the lessons learned to one's own organization, and how to identify the particular management and business issues that benchmarking is right for. To download this document, go to http://www.innovations.gov.au/benchmar.htm
Detailing the success New Zealand has had in improving the performance of its state sector, this article summarizes the background to and context of the reform undertaken, outlines the key concepts, describes the appropriation process and departmental and aggregate reporting, summarizes the implementation of reform, and identifies future direction. The primary objective of the reform was to obtain more effective government by focusing on the following four areas: the accountability relationship between ministers and department heads, the distinction between the purchase and ownership interests of the government in departments, the distinction between outputs and outcomes, and the devolution of control over input resources. Appropriations and reporting changes are also covered in the article.
This document provides a comprehensive summary of courses, seminars, conferences, workshops, and other offerings from governmental and nongovernmental providers and organizations. The date and time for each entry is also provided. Topics covered include benchmarking, quality management, performance measures, performance management, and reinventing government. This information, which is updated by the second Monday of every month, is distributed to subscribers via e-mail or fax. Complimentary subscriptions to the monthly updates are available to government employees in the Washington metropolitan region (area codes 202, 301, 410, and 703). There is a charge for nongovernmental employees. For a subscription form or additional information, contact Carl J. Metzger, Management Systems International, 600 Water Street, SW, Washington, DC 20024, 202-484-7170 (phone), 202-488-0754 (fax), firstname.lastname@example.org (e-mail).
In this article answering the question of why government needs to be managing for results, Mihm makes a case for the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) by noting the positive benefits accruing to organizations that have begun to focus on outcomes. He suggests that those agencies that are aggressively implementing GPRA and related initiatives are positioning themselves to be effective participants "in the new national dialogue that is taking place about the role and effectiveness of the federal government." The experiences of leading foreign and state governments demonstrate that clarity of mission, achievement of outcomes, and systematic use of performance information to improve effectiveness are key to organizational survival.
In this handbook, National Association of State Budget Officers presents findings from a 50-state survey on privatization, budget reform, and mergers. The report tracks developments in the performance area, particularly the use of multi-year performance budgeting in many states. To receive a copy of the guide, contact Melanie Nowacki at 202-624-5382.
This book focuses on new models of governance at the federal, state, and local levels, highlighting innovative approaches that maximize productivity and effectiveness. Drawing upon their own consulting experience and interviews with practitioners throughout the country, the authors identify common principals of innovative, entrepreneurial government and offer a number of insights in the area of performance measurement. The book includes case studies of government innovation to illustrate major principles.
In this report, the Pennsylvania Economy League assesses performance measurement efforts in 16 cities and reports on both positive and problematic features of each effort. Case examples discussed include Boston's top-down process of performance measurement in which the budget office collects 1,200 measures across 50 departments but faces a problem of underutilization of the results. The use of performance-based bonuses for city employees in Jacksonville and the use of its employee performance evaluation system, merit incentive system, and special goals and objectives program are described. Also mentioned is the Dallas benchmarking process which uses citizen surveys as a means of determining publics priorities and improving accountability. Contact the League at 215-864-9562 for a copy.
This three-volume video series covers strategic planning definition and overview; how to write a plan; mission, goals, and values statements; needs assessments; stakeholder analysis; how to write strategic objectives; outcomes measures and output measures; evaluating alternative strategies; assessing internal strengths and weaknesses; how to write tactical objectives; how to integrate the strategic plan with the operating budget; and performance and evaluation feedback. To order, call 512-474-1774, or access the Web at http://www.perfstrat.com/products/sppsv.htm
Two of the least painful options available to federal, state, and local decisionmakers engaged in downsizing initiatives include improving efficiency and reducing the cost of quality. Performance auditors, by measuring and comparing performance among organizations and with other benchmarks, can "identify opportunities for improvement that can influence positive changes in government operations." In this article, the authors, who work at the U.S. General Accounting Office, provide various options for reducing the cost of government and offer a step-by-step process for measuring and assessing performance improvement opportunities.
This paper discusses the case for results-based accountability and proposes a start-up list of outcome measures that could be used by communities as they begin to implement this approach. While targeting individuals involved in child and family services, the information provided in this paper is applicable to a much wider audience. The writers identify the potential benefits and risks of shifting to results-based accountability and describe new issues that will be raised by this shift, including who selects the outcomes to be achieved for accountability purposes, who is responsible for achieving the selected results, and is there a role in results-based accountability for cost-savings outcomes. To request a copy of this paper, contact the Center for the Study of Social Policy at 202-371-1565.
This book summarizes the lessons learned by companies with considerable experience in the benchmarking process and presents a generic model of operational benchmarking that is appropriate for both public and private sector organizations.
Drawing on the experiences of many types of agencies, this manual provides a step-by-step approach for specifying program outcomes, developing measurable indicators, identifying data sources and data collection methods, analyzing and reporting findings, and using outcome information. The publication is directed primarily to health, human service, and youth- and family-serving agencies. To order, contact the United Way at 1-800-772-0008.
This report was prepared in response to a specific recommendation by the National Performance Review (NPR) that the Advisory Commission of Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) "develop appropriate benchmarks and performance measures to improve the understanding of public service delivery effectiveness." As an initial response to NPR's assignment, this report briefly summarizes several recent surveys of state and local performance indicators and performance budgeting experiences, reviews current strategic planning and performance management programs in 13 federal public works agencies, and discusses related intergovernmental policy implications. Before focusing on public works performance and sharing case studies and other materials, the introductory sections of this report provide a general overview of the status of performance-based government, identify the technical and logistical difficulties that need to be overcome, discuss some of the potential benefits and risks of outcome-oriented performance management, and point out some of the implications for intergovernmental programs. The following points are also addressed: why government must perform better, how governments can and are beginning to do so, and what this report will do to help. To request a copy of this report, contact ACIR at 202-653-5540.
This resource provides information that can be used to identify training providers and consultants with expertise in managing for results. The Federal Supply Schedule (FSS) is offered to federal agencies by the General Services Administration to provide them with a streamlined procurement device to obtain consultation and training services. Contractors placed on this list have demonstrated that they are capable of providing expert assistance as defined in the supply schedule. To request a copy of the schedule, contact General Services Administration, FSS Schedule Information Center, Washington, DC 20406, 703-305-6477. While state and local governments are not authorized users of FSS, the schedule does provide contact information for those trainers and consultants that can be used to develop other arrangements.
This book provides a practical approach for implementing an "outcome focus" in government by offering a specific and practical set of tools by which the public sector can move from the role of funder to that of investor. The authors suggest that governments must move away from their intensive scrutiny of inputs to a focus on results. The basic methodologies shared on outcome budgeting, planning, defining targets, establishing milestones, and reviewing performance are applicable across government and are not just limited to the grantmaking community. To order, call 518-797-3783.
The writers in this forum offer insight and advice on issues related to improving government performance. Topics include the use of performance information as a decision-making tool by managers; management techniques including Planning Programming Budgeting Systems, Zero Based Budgeting, Management by Objectives, and Total Quality Management, that are improving government; examples of excellent management practices found in local government; the Government Performance and Results Act; goal setting, measurement, and regular reporting; and internal evaluation.