|Key Word||Topic(s)||Key Word||Topic(s)|
|account||Accountability||local||Local Focus or Specific Local Case Studies|
|bench||Benchmarking / Best Practices||manage||Performance Management|
|budget||Performance-Based Budgeting / Financial Management||measure||Measures / Performance Measurement|
|customer||Customer Surveys / Customer Satisfaction||mfr||General Managing for Results|
|federal||Federal Focus or Specific Federal Case Studies||report||Reporting|
|international||International Focus or Specific International Case Studies||state||State Focus or Specific State Case Studies|
Deciding for Investment provides an approach to budgeting that aligns tax dollars with current priorities, keeps resources focused on results, and realizes a return on investment. This budget process pushes leaders to be accountable, requires more broad-based citizen engagement, and gives public managers and workers the information and incentives they need to pursue results aggressively. This workbook provides a step-by-step guide for creating this system of decision making. Topics covered include visions and benchmarks, calculating return on investment, clarifying and prioritizing investment choices, making investment decisions, and measuring results. To order, call the Alliance at 202-347-3190.
Local Case Studies
In this report of its Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Implementation Committee, the Chief Financial Officers Council examines GPRA's requirements and its implications for the financial management community. The Council focused on four basic topics: guiding principles for implementing GPRA, key issues requiring additional attention, baseline information on GPRA implementation, and networking and information sharing. The report was developed to serve as a reference document for both CFOs and nonfinancial managers. Among the useful information included in the report's appendices are: GPRA contacts by agency, interagency workgroups, a bibliography of key publications, and a training compendium. The training section is a compilation of available training courses and consulting services for GPRA and related topics such as strategic planning, performance measurement, and program evaluation. Course providers listed are willing to develop customized courses or will provide already developed courses at their or the sponsoring agency's location. The bibliography provides an extensive listing of key publications in the areas of performance measurement and strategic planning from federal agencies, government organizations, and other general sources (including periodicals and books). For a copy of the report, contact Steve App, Deputy CFO at Treasury and GPRA Implementation Chair, 202/622-0750; or download the report from ftp://ftp.fedworld.gov/pub/results/cfodoc01.txt.
This study of the uses of performance measurement in federal budgeting analyzes the probable effects of S. 20 (the legislation that later became the Government Performance and Results Act) and similar efforts on the federal budget process. Topics covered include performance measurement and budgeting: issues and concepts; the state, local, and international experience in linking performance measurement and budgeting; past federal efforts to link performance measures and budgeting; the experience of federal agencies with performance measurement; and evaluating proposals for measuring and budgeting for federal performance. For a copy of this study, contact the Congressional Budget Office at 202-226-2809.
|Joyce, Philip G. "Using Performance Measures for Federal Budgeting: Proposals and Prospects."|
Public Budgeting and Finance, Winter 1993, 3-17.
In this article, Philip Joyce, an analyst in the Special Studies Division of the Congressional Budget Office, focuses
As taxpayers and political leaders seek evidence that publicly funded programs are truly working and making a difference in people's lives, this publication was designed to show how a focus on results can improve public policy and program performance. This book provides valuable lessons on designing and using outcome measurement systems that can be applied to all areas of government.
Developed as a companion piece to Getting Results, this guide focuses on performance measurement by presenting the graphic modeling technique as a means for developing measurement tools for governments. It demonstrates how graphic modeling can be used to help define outcomes of public policies and programs, craft performance measurements, and improve the reporting of results.
Issue scanning a method for obtaining advance notice on emerging policy issues is the focus of this publication. Issue scanning systems help inform and improve existing policy development and issue management processes. The objectives of this handbook are to describe the conceptual and historical background of scanning and how it relates to other planning processes, present the basic elements of a scanning process for those interested in developing their own, and discuss the benefits scanning can offer policymakers and their staffs. While this book has been tailored for people concerned with anticipating policy issues in state government, policy and planning officials in other levels of government, in the private sector, and in not-for-profit organizations should find the handbook useful as well. Case studies of three state agencies that have implemented scanning programs are included.
To order publications from the Council of Governors Policy Advisors, contact NGA Publications, P.O. Box 421, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-0421, 301-498-3738.
This guide takes the reader step by step through the formulation of long-range goals; the connection between budget and goals; and the development of a budget document that accurately reflects current programs, community needs, government resources, and external circumstances.
(evaluate, local, report)
Performance Auditing for Local Government. Washington, DC: 1989. Report #40243, 21pp. $13.95.
This report discusses the development of performance standards, the location of the audit function in the organization, and staffing requirements. Case studies are included.
This paperback contains information on establishing valid performance measures, developing a performance assessment system, and using data to improve service quality and productivity in local government.
This interactive CD-ROM combines video, audio, and text into a unique informational and educational tool that lets users learn about performance measurement and develop customized measures of their own using state-of-the-art technology. Included are a guided tour of the performance measurement process, practical examples that show you how to develop performance measures, quizzes reinforcing key points, detailed information about each aspect of performance measurement, video clips from leading users of performance measurement, and information on developing custom measures. Also included is an extensive bibliography1 of resources that includes documents prepared by professional associations, state, local, and federal agencies and programs as well as a listing of international publications. 1(Adapted from a bibliography provided at the November 1995 conference, Managing for Results: Advancing the Art of Performance Measurement, held in Austin, Texas.)
To order the above items, or to request a catalog of publications, contact the ICMA Distribution Center at 1-800-745-8780 within the United States or 301-498-1227 from outside the U.S.
Federal Benchmarking Consortium Through the Federal Benchmarking Consortium, NPR is seeking ways to create a government that works better and costs less by identifying best practices that can be used to reinvent government. Completed consortium reports include the following:
Reports to be completed in fall 1996 are:
This report analyzes the budget practices and innovations in twenty-two OECD countries. It describes how the practice of budgeting is contributing to a greater performance orientation in the public sector. It also provides standard summaries of the institutional framework and procedures governing budgeting in each of these countries.
This report is part of a series of Public Management Occasional Papers prepared for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Public Management Committee. The report discusses issues relating to the development of performance measurement systems as well as the application of management tools such as devolution, contractual arrangements, and the use of appropriate incentives.
The Experience of OECD Countries and GPRA
In "How 'The Government Performance and Results Act' Borrows From the Experience of OECD Countries,"
This report is part of a series of Public Management Occasional Papers prepared for the Organisation for Economic Co-peration and Development's Public Management Committee. The reports focus on specific issues of administrative improvement in areas such as policymaking, human resource management, regulatory reform, the use of market-type mechanisms, and performance management.
Performance measurement is a powerful improvement tool. Learn why new performance measures are needed, what their characteristics are, and how to implement them.
In more than 100 chapters, quality movement leaders reveal the evolving theory and specific practices of world-class organizations. Spanning a wide variety of industries and business sectors, this handbook includes insightful discussions on quality and productivity in manufacturing, service industries, profit centers, administration, nonprofit and government institutions, health care, and education. Topics covered include benchmarking, the best way to implement an activity-based cost management system, 10 rules for building a measurement system, process simplification through cycle-time reduction, strategies for measuring and improving white-collar productivity, and sharing the productivity payoff.
Benchmarking is an effective method for learning about best practices and applying them in the organization to improve performance. This book describes how benchmarking projects can be organized to provide beneficial results for both parties. It includes an industry study and a process exchange model.
For information on other publications or to order, call 1-800-394-6868. The Productivity Press online catalog can be accessed at http://www.press.com/
This report features a synopsis of conference sessions, summarizing the major points discussed. Featured speakers at the conference included David Osborne, co-author of Reinventing Government; Peter Harkness, editor and publisher of Governing magazine; Elaine Kamarck, senior policy advisor to Vice President Al Gore and director of the National Performance Review; Duncan Wyse, executive director of the Oregon Progress Board; and many others with expertise in goalsetting and performance measurement. Conference transcripts and audio tapes are also available.
To assess benchmarking and performance measurement efforts already in progress across the region, the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) interviewed key leaders in all 14 SGPB member states as well as Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Texas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
This report profiles the experiences of four pioneering states Minnesota, Oregon, Texas, and Utah to describe the lessons each has learned along the way and the challenges each state continues to confront in its endeavors to bring greater accountability to government.
Provides a compilation of key issues for consideration relating to benchmarking in the public sector.
To order any of these publications, contact the Southern Growth Policies Board at 919-941-5144 (phone) or e-mail your request to firstname.lastname@example.org
The Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) and the Southern Consortium of University Public Service Organizations (SCUPSO) issued this guide in conjunction with the launching of a new training program in strategic planning and performance measurement that they jointly designed. This guide provides an overview, key steps, and implementation tips for each of the seven modules included in the training curriculum. These modules cover the basics of managing for results, including strategic planning, benchmarking best practices, performance measurement, using performance results for project management, performance-based budgeting, performance-based contracting, and creating an environment that supports these activities. Curriculum resource materials on each of these topics include a participant's overview, an instructor's manual, overheads, exercises, and handouts. Customized training programs can be developed for public officials in SCUPSO member states. Single copies of this report are free upon request within SGPB and SCUPSO member states. Others should send $3 to cover postage and handling to: Southern Growth Policies Board, P.O. Box 12293, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. For further information, contact Linda Hoke, SGPB, at 919-941-5145. To discuss the development of a customized training program, contact the president of SCUPSO, W. Martin Wiseman, Director, Stennis Institute of Government, Mississippi State University, 601-325-3328.
This review samples literature on strategic planning, total quality management, program evaluation, organizational change, benchmarking, and performance measurement. The entry for each source includes an overview of the information provided, a description of the method used to obtain or develop the recommendations or conclusions, and a concise profile of the lessons learned and described in each source. By reviewing nearly 50 sources and filtering out the key points and tools, the Southern Growth Policies Board helps policymakers cut through the complexity of designing comprehensive systems that lead to long-term accountability in government. Copies of this publication are available for $15 from: Southern Growth Policies Board, P.O. Box 12293, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, 919-941-5145 (phone) or 919-941-5594 (fax).
This manual, which is based on an earlier version of Louisiana's Manageware, describes Arizona's management processes for strategic planning and performance measurement. The manual, which was developed to help state agencies comply with the requirements of the Arizona Budget Reform Act of 1993, provides step-by-step instructions for strategic planning and performance measurement. To order a copy, contact Peggy O'Sullivan-Kachel, Strategic Planning Coordinator, at 602-542-5381.
This publication describes the guidelines for self-assessments required for periodic Program Authorization Reviews established in the Arizona Budget Reform Act of 1993. These reviews are to become part of the annual budget process and result in decisions to retain, eliminate or modify particular state government programs. Contact Peggy O'Sullivan-Kachel, Strategic Planning Coordinator, at 602-542-5381.
This report is the result of a study of performance budgeting practices in Colorado and 10 other states. The report includes a matrix comparing state experiences with performance budgeting, a set of options for implementation of performance budgeting for the General Assembly and governor to consider, and fiscal impact estimates for a performance budgeting pilot project. Contact Mike Trevithick, Colorado Joint Budget Committee Staff, 303-866-2061.
MANAGEWARE describes Louisiana's management processes for policy development, strategic and operational planning and budgeting using the program budgeting approach, capital outlay planning and budgeting, and accountability. The guide contains a chapter on each of the major state management processes. Each chapter provides basic information (definitions, procedures, and guidelines) as well as sources of help and references to books and materials. Step-by-step instructions are provided for most management processes and tools. A glossary and list of sources are also provided. Contact Carolyn S. Lane at 504-342-7410 (phone) or e-mail email@example.com
Issued biennially, Oregon Benchmarks are the measurable indicators the state uses to assess its progress toward broad strategic goals. In addition to providing information on more than 259 benchmarks in this report, the Oregon Progress Board reviews the state's strategic vision and core benchmarks that measure progress toward achieving that vision, describes critical trends that are shaping Oregon, and identifies urgent benchmarks that need to be refocused on the long-term vision. A 1994 recipient of the Innovations in Government Award presented by the Ford Foundation and Kennedy School of Government, the Oregon Benchmarks project is an excellent source for measures. To request a copy of the report, contact the Oregon Progress Board at 503-986-0039. This report can also be downloaded or reviewed on-line at the Oregon Progress Board Web site at http://www.ncn.com/~rilg/OPB
This guide to performance measurement for state agencies explains the importance of performance measures within the strategic planning and budgeting cycle, identifies state leadership's expectations for management involvement with measures, provides information about measures, and details how agencies can establish internal controls in measurement systems so that they report accurate information. The guide is a how-to instruction book that identifies the steps to take in completing each component of the performance measurement process and provides helpful tips as well. It is divided into three main sections to provide tailored instructions to state agencies, universities, and health-related institutions. To request a copy of the guide, contact the State Auditor's Office at 512-479-4740.
The Utah Tomorrow Strategic Plan is organized around 10 broad subject areas including economic development, culture, health and safety, and education. Under each subject area, the goals, objectives, and performance measures are reported. The Utah Tomorrow Strategic Planning Committee organized a cooperative effort with state agencies, departments, and local government to define, implement, and refine the goals, objectives, and performance measures presented and discussed with the legislature and the governor. Once adopted, these items set in place standards for agencies, local governments, the judiciary, and the legislature to use in policy and planning activities. To request of a copy of the Strategic Plan, contact the Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel at 801-538-1032.
In this article, Financial World ranks the 50 states according to their performance in three significant areas of management: financial management, managing for results, and infrastructure. A profile summarizing the key findings about each state's performance in these three areas is provided. With regard to managing for results, Financial World used answers to the following questions as criteria to determine a grade: What efforts has the state made to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the services it delivers? Are there results-oriented measurements of programs? Are there surveys of citizen satisfaction? Does the state benchmark itself against other government entities? Does the state set long-term goals for itself and then compare those goals to the actual results? Are measurement systems having an impact on budgeting and management practices in the state? The state profiles, which include answers to these questions, are a useful way to learn how far along states are in managing for results.
This document is a publication of the Performance Measurement Reporting and Improvement System (PMRIS) Building Project of the National Institute for Literacy. While intended for use by states interested in developing performance measurement, reporting, and improvement systems for literacy, the guide is applicable to a much broader audience. The review provides a very keen assessment of two states known for leading the way in performance measurement and reporting. A set of recommendations and lessons learned are identified based on the experience of Texas and Oregon. The implications for developing a PMRIS and establishing data collection and reporting systems are also shared. To request a copy of this report, contact the National Institute for Literacy at 202-632-1500.
This Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) publication describes the efforts of 18 states in planning and developing results-based accountability systems. It includes states that already have very comprehensive efforts and those that are now in the planning phase. Through document reviews and key interviews, the project developed descriptive profiles of state efforts. The primary focus of these profiles is on initiatives related to child and family services. Information on key contacts and information the state has developed is included in this resource guide. The states profiled are Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia. For ordering information, contact HFRP at 617-495-9108; or access the HFRP Web site at http://hugse1.harvard.educ/~hfrp/ (Upcoming issues of the HFRP newsletter, The Evaluation Exchange, which is also available on the HFRP Web site, will include information on lessons learned and other issues identified during the state reviews.)
This Defense Department performance guide, consisting of IBM compatible software and a user's manual, contains three stand-alone but integrated modules: The Quality and Productivity Self-Assessment Guide, Guide for Developing Performance Measures, and Guide for Measuring Customer Satisfaction. To request a free copy of these materials, contact 703-767-1252.
Designed for U.S. Department of Justice managers who are responsible for developing performance indicators for their programs, the handbook provides guidance on crafting meaningful performance measures as required by Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), and is therefore relevant to a wider federal audience. The guide outlines 10 steps to developing useful performance indicators, offers performance measurement definitions, explains types of performance indicators, and provides an overview of GPRA. This handbook is accessible on the Internet at gopher://pula.financenet.gov:70/11/docs/post/perform
This guide explains what performance measurement is, why it is useful, how to create performance indicators, and how to use performance measurement. The Financial Management Service (FMS) has defined five phases of a performance measurement process: (1) strategic planning, (2) creating indicators, ( 3) developing data measurement systems, (4) refining measures, and (5) integrating with management processes. Included in this guide are helpful hints, a list of tasks necessary to complete each phase in the process, and appendices of worksheets and examples to help in applying the process at your own organization. To obtain a copy of the guide, contact Nancy Fitzgerald, FMS, GPRA coordinator, at 202-874-6732.
In developing its strategic management process, the Internal Revenue Service sought to include the best practices in planning and budgeting used by local, state, and international governments and government-sponsored enterprises known for being in the forefront in performance budgeting and results-oriented management. The report explains the case for change at IRS; offers recommendations on why planning, budgeting, investment, and review processes should be integrated; and summarizes best practices information obtained in the study. To request a copy, contact Tom Brandt in the Office of Economic Analysis at 202-622-8211 (phone), or Tom_Brandt@cfomail.fin.irs.gov (email).
This publication is the Internal Revenue Service's integrated handbook on general procedures and templates to initiate, analyze, manage, and decide on all major investments. The handbook was written to ensure that the costs, benefits, and returns on investment for major investment justification documents, such as business cases and economic analyses, are standardized and complete. To request a copy, contact Darren Ash in the Office of Economic Analysis at 202-622-8226 (phone), or Darren_Ash@cfomail.fin.irs.gov (e-mail).
The following resources are excerpted from a listing of selected reports and publications on performance measurement and program evaluation obtained from the Urban Institute Public Management Program, April 1996.