Title: Executive Order 12902: Energy and Water Conservation
Author: The White House
Date: March 8, 1994
THE WHITE HOUSE
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release
March 8, 1994
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND WATER CONSERVATION
AT FEDERAL FACILITIES
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution
and the laws of the United States of America, including the Energy
Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163, 89 Stat. 871, 42
U.S.C. 6201 et seq.) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992
(Public Law 102-486, 106 Stat. 2776) and section 301 of title 3,
United States Code, I hereby order as follows:
PART 1 - DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this order:
Section 101. The "Act" means the Federal energy management
provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by
the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Sec. 102. The term "comprehensive facility audit" means a
survey of a building or facility that provides sufficiently detailed
information to allow an agency to enter into energy or water savings
performance contracts or to invite inspection and bids by private
upgrade specialists for direct agency-funded energy or water
efficiency investments. It shall include information such as the
Sec. 103. The term "cost-effective" means providing a payback
period of less than 10 years, as determined by using the methods and
procedures developed pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 8254 and 10 CFR 436.
- the type, size, energy use, and performance of the major
energy using systems and their interaction with the building
envelope, the climate and weather influences, usage patterns, and
related environmental concerns;
- appropriate energy and water conservation maintenance and
- recommendations for the acquisition and installation of
energy conservation measures, including solar and other renewable
energy and water conservation measures; and
- a strategy to implement the recommendations.
Sec. 104. The term "demand side management" refers to utility-
sponsored programs that increase energy efficiency and water
conservation or the management of demand. The term includes load
Sec. 105. The term "energy savings performance contracts" means
contracts that provide for the performance of services for the audit,
design, acquisition, installation, testing, operation, and, where
appropriate, maintenance and repair, of an identified energy or water
conservation measure or series of measures at one or more locations.
Sec. 106. The term "agency" means an executive agency as
defined in 5 U.S.C. 105. For the purpose of this order, military
departments, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 102, are covered under the
auspices of the Department of Defense.
Sec. 107. The term "Federal building" means any individual
building, structure, or part thereof, including the associated energy
or water-consuming support systems, which is constructed, renovated,
or purchased in whole or in part for use by the Federal Government
and which consumes energy or water. In any provision of this order,
the term "Federal building" shall also include any building leased in
whole or in part for use by the Federal Government where the term of
the lease exceeds 5 years and the lease does not prohibit
implementation of the provision in question.
Sec. 108. The term "Federal facility" means any building or
collection of buildings, grounds, or structure, as well as any
fixture or part thereof, which is owned by the United States or any
Federal agency or which is held by the United States or any Federal
agency under a lease-acquisition agreement under which the United
States or a Federal agency will receive fee simple title under the
terms of such agreement without further negotiation. In any
provision of this order, the term "Federal facility" shall also
include any building leased in whole or in part for use by the
Federal Government where the term of the lease exceeds 5 years and
the lease does not prohibit implementation of the provision in
Sec. 109. The term "franchising" means that an agency would
provide the services of its employees to other agencies on a
Sec. 110. The term "gainsharing" refers to incentive systems
that allocate some portion of savings resulting from gains in
productivity to the workers who produce those gains.
Sec. 111. The term "industrial facilities" means any fixed
equipment, building, or complex for the production of goods that uses
large amounts of capital equipment in connection with, or as part of,
any process or system, and within which the majority of energy use is
not devoted to the heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, or to
service the hot water energy load requirements of the building.
Sec. 112. The term "life cycle cost" refers to life cycle cost
calculated pursuant to the methodology established by 10 CFR 436.11.
Sec. 113. The term "prioritization survey" means a rapid
assessment that will be used by an agency to identify those
facilities with the highest priority projects based on the degree of
cost effectiveness and to schedule comprehensive facility audits
prior to project implementation. The prioritization survey shall
include information such as the following:
- the type, size, energy and water use levels of the major
energy and water using systems in place at the facility; and
- the need, if any, for acquisition and installation of cost-
effective energy and water conservation measures, including solar and
other renewable energy resource measures.
Sec. 114. The term "shared energy savings contract" refers to a
contract under which the contractor incurs the cost of implementing
energy savings measures (including, but not limited to, performing
the audit, designing the project, acquiring and installing equipment,
training personnel, and operating and maintaining equipment) and in
exchange for providing these services, the contractor gains a share
of any energy cost savings directly resulting from implementation of
such measures during the term of the contract.
Sec. 115. The term "solar and other renewable energy sources"
includes, but is not limited to, agriculture and urban waste,
geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind energy.
Sec. 116. The term "utility" means any person, State, or agency
that is engaged in the business of producing or selling electricity
or engaged in the local distribution of natural gas or water to any
PART 2 - INTERAGENCY COORDINATION
Sec. 201. Interagency Coordination. The Department of Energy
("DOE") shall take the lead in implementing this order through the
Federal Energy Management Program ("FEMP"). The Interagency Energy
Policy Committee ("656 Committee") and the Interagency Energy
Management Task Force ("Task Force") shall serve as forums to
coordinate issues involved in implementing energy efficiency, water
conservation, and solar and other renewable energy in the Federal
PART 3 - AGENCY GOALS AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS FOR ENERGY
AND WATER EFFICIENCY IN FEDERAL FACILITIES
Sec. 301. Energy Consumption Reduction Goals.
- Each agency
shall develop and implement a program with the intent of reducing
energy consumption by 30 percent by the year 2005, based on energy
consumption per-gross-square-foot of its buildings in use, to the
extent that these measures are cost- effective. The 30 percent
reductions shall be measured relative to the agency's 1985 energy
use. Each agency's implementation program shall be designed to speed
the introduction of cost- effective, energy-efficient technologies
into Federal facilities, and to meet the goals and requirements of
the Act and this order.
- Each agency shall develop and implement a program for its
industrial facilities in the aggregate with the intent of increasing
energy efficiency by at least 20 percent by the year 2005 as compared
to the 1990 benchmark, to the extent these measures are cost-
effective, and shall implement all cost- effective water conservation
projects. DOE, in coordination with the 656 Committee, shall
establish definitions and appropriate indicators of energy and water
efficiency, and energy and water consumption and costs, in Federal
industrial facilities for the purpose of establishing a base year of
Sec. 302. Energy and Water Surveys and Audits of Federal
- Prioritization Survey. Each agency responsible for
managing Federal facilities shall conduct a prioritization survey,
within 18 months of the date of this order, on each of the facilities
the agency manages. The surveys shall be used to establish
priorities for conducting comprehensive facility audits.
- Comprehensive Facility Audits. Each agency shall develop
and begin implementing a 10-year plan to conduct or obtain
comprehensive facility audits, based on prioritization surveys
performed under section 302(a) of this order.
- Implementation of the plan shall ensure that
comprehensive facility audits of approximately 10 percent of the
agency's facilities are completed each year. Agencies responsible
for managing less than 100 Federal facilities shall plan and execute
approximately 10 comprehensive facility audits per year until all
facilities have been audited.
- Comprehensive audits of facilities performed within
the last 3 years may be considered current for the purposes of
- "No-cost" audits, such as those outlined in section
501(c) of this order, shall be utilized to the extent practicable.
- Exempt Facilities. Because the mission within facilities
exempt from the energy and water reduction requirements under the Act
may not allow energy efficiency and water conservation in certain
operations, actions shall be taken to reduce all other energy and
water waste using the procedures described in the Act and this order.
Each agency shall develop and implement a plan to improve energy and
water efficiency in such exempt facilities. The prioritization
surveys are intended to allow agencies to refine their designation of
facilities as "exempt" or "industrial," so that only individual
buildings in which industrial or energy- intensive operations are
conducted remain designated as "exempt" or "industrial." Within 21
months of the date of this order, each agency shall report to FEMP
and to the Office of Management and Budget ("OMB") the redesignations
that the agency is making as a result of the prioritization surveys.
Agencies may seek exemptions for their facilities pursuant to the
Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended.
- Leased Facilities. Agencies shall conduct surveys and
audits of leased facilities to the extent practicable and to the
extent that the recommendations of such surveys and audits could be
implemented under the terms of the lease.
Sec. 303. Implementation of Energy Efficiency and Water
- Implementation of New Audit
Recommendations. Within 1 year of the date of this order, agencies
shall identify, based on preliminary recommendations from the
prioritization surveys required under section 302 of this order, high
priority facilities to audit and shall complete the first 10 percent
of the required comprehensive facility audits. Within 180 days of
the completion of the comprehensive facility audit of each facility,
agencies shall begin imple- menting cost-effective recommendations
for installation of energy efficiency, water conservation, and
renewable energy technologies for that facility.
- Implementation of Existing Audits. Within 180 days of the
date of this order, agencies shall begin to implement cost-effective
recommendations from comprehensive audits of facilities performed
within the past 3 years, for installation of energy efficiency, water
conservation, and renewable energy technologies.
Sec. 304. Solar and Other Renewable Energy. The goal of the
Federal Government is to significantly increase the use of solar and
other renewable energy sources. DOE shall develop a program for
achieving this goal cost-effectively and, within 210 days of the date
of this order, submit the program to the 656 Committee for review.
DOE shall lead the effort to assist agencies in meeting this goal.
Sec. 305. Minimization of Petroleum-Based Fuel Use in Federal
Buildings and Facilities.
All agencies shall develop and implement
programs to reduce the use of petroleum in their buildings and
facilities by switching to a less-polluting and nonpetroleum-based
energy source, such as natural gas or solar and other renewable
energy sources. Where alternative fuels are not practical or cost-
effective, agencies shall strive to improve the efficiency with which
they use the petroleum. Each agency shall survey its buildings and
facilities that utilize petroleum-based fuel systems to determine
where the potential for a dual-fuel capability exists and shall
provide dual-fuel capability where cost-effective and practicable.
Sec. 306. New Space.
- New Federal Facility Construction.
Each agency involved in the construction of a new facility that is to
be either owned by or leased to the Federal Government shall:
- design and construct such facility to minimize the
life cycle cost of the facility by utilizing energy efficiency, water
conservation, or solar or other renewable energy technologies;
- ensure that the design and construction of facilities
meet or exceed the energy performance standards applicable to Federal
residential or commercial buildings as set forth in 10 CFR 435, local
building standards, or a Btu-per- gross-square-foot ceiling as
determined by the Task Force within 120 days of the date of this
order, whichever will result in a lower life cycle cost over the life
of the facility;
- establish and implement, within 270 days of the date
of this order, a facility commissioning program that will ensure that
the construction of such facilities meets the requirements outlined
in this section before the facility is accepted into the Federal
facility inventory; and
- utilize passive solar design and adopt active solar
technologies where they are cost-effective.
- New Leases For Existing Facilities. To the extent
practicable and permitted by law, agencies entering into leases,
including the renegotiation or extension of existing leases, shall
identify the energy and water consumption of those facilities and
seek to incorporate provisions into each lease that minimize the cost
of energy and water under a life cycle analysis, while maintaining or
improving occupant health and safety. These requirements may include
renovation of proposed space prior to or within the first year of
each lease. Responsible agencies shall seek to negotiate the cost of
the lease, taking into account the reduced energy and water costs
during the term of the lease.
- Government-Owned Contractor-Operated Facilities. All
Government-owned contractor-operated facilities shall comply with the
goals and requirements of this order. Energy and water management
goals shall be incorporated into their management contracts.
Sec. 307. Showcase Facilities.
- New Building Showcases.
When an agency constructs at least five buildings in a year, it shall
designate at least one building, at the earliest stage of
development, to be a showcase highlighting advanced technologies and
practices for energy efficiency, water conservation, or use of solar
and other renewable energy.
- Demonstrations in Existing Facilities. Each agency shall
designate one of its major buildings to become a showcase to
highlight energy or water efficiency and also shall attempt to
incorporate cogeneration, solar and other renewable energy
technologies, and indoor air quality improvements. Selection of such
buildings shall be based on considerations such as the level of
nonfederal visitors, historic significance, and the likelihood that
visitors will learn from displays and implement similar projects.
Within 180 days of the date of this order, each agency shall develop
and implement plans and work in cooperation with DOE and, where
appropriate, in consultation with the General Services Administration
("GSA"), the Environ- mental Protection Agency ("EPA"), and other
appropriate agencies, to determine the most effective and cost-
effective strategies to implement these demonstrations.
Sec. 308. Annual Reporting Requirements.
- As required
under the Act, the head of each agency shall report annually to the
Secretary of Energy and OMB, in a format specified by the Secretary
and OMB after consulting with the 656 Committee. The report shall
describe the agency's progress in achieving the goals of this order.
- The Secretary of Energy shall report to the President and
the Congress annually on the implementation of this order. The report
should provide information on energy and water use and cost data and
shall provide the greatest level of detail practicable for buildings
and facilities by energy source.
Sec. 309. Report on Full Fuel Cycle Analysis.
prepare a report on the issues involved in instituting life cycle
analysis for Federal energy and product purchases that address the
full fuel cycle costs, including issues concerning energy
exploration, development, processing, transportation, storage,
distribution, consumption, and disposal, and related impacts on the
environment. The report shall examine methods for conducting life
cycle analysis and implementing such analysis in the Federal sector
and shall make appropriate recommendations. The report shall be
forwarded to the President for review.
Sec. 310. Agency Accountability. One year after the date of
this order, and every 2 years thereafter, the President's Management
Council shall report to the President about efforts and actions by
agencies to meet the requirements of this order. In addition, each
agency head shall designate a senior official, at the Assistant
Secretary level or above, to be responsible for achieving the
requirements of this order and shall appoint such official to the 656
Committee. The 656 Committee shall also work to ensure the
implementation of this order. The agency senior official and the 656
Committee shall coordinate implementation with the Federal
Environmental Executive and Agency Environmental Executives
established under Executive Order No. 12873.
PART 4 - USE OF INNOVATIVE FINANCING AND CONTRACTUAL
Sec. 401. Financing Mechanisms. In addition to available
appropriations, agencies shall utilize innovative financing and
contractual mechanisms, including, but not limited to, utility demand
side management programs, shared energy savings contracts, and energy
savings performance contracts, to meet the goals and requirements of
the Act and this order.
Sec. 402. Workshop for Agencies. Within a reasonable time of
the date of this order, the Director of OMB, or his or her designee,
and the Task Force shall host a workshop for agencies regarding
financing and contracting for energy efficiency, water efficiency,
and renewable technology projects. Based on the results of that
meeting, the Administrator, Office of Procurement Policy ("OFPP"),
shall assist the Administrator of General Services and the Secretary
of Energy in eliminating unnecessary regulatory and procedural
barriers that slow the utilization of such audit, financing, and
contractual mechanisms or complicate their use. All actions that are
cost-effective shall be implemented through the process required in
section 403 of this order.
Sec. 403. Elimination of Barriers. Agency heads shall work
with their procurement officials to identify and eliminate internal
regulations, procedures, or other barriers to implemen- tation of the
Act and this order. DOE shall develop a model set of recommendations
that will be forwarded to the Administrator of OFPP in order to
assist agencies in eliminating the identified barriers.
PART 5 - TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, INCENTIVES, AND AWARENESS
Sec. 501. Technical Assistance.
- To assist Federal energy
managers in implementing energy efficiency and water conservation
projects, DOE shall, within 180 days of the date of this order,
develop and make available through the Task Force:
- guidance explaining the relationship between water use
and energy consumption and the energy savings achieved through water
- a model solicitation and implementation guide for
innovative funding mechanisms referenced in section 401 of this
- a national list of companies providing water services
in addition to the list of qualified energy service companies as
required by the Act;
- the capabilities and technologies available through
the national energy laboratories; and
- an annually-updated guidance manual for Federal energy
managers that includes, at a minimum, new sample contracts or
contract provisions, position descriptions, case studies, recent
guidance, and success stories.
- The Secretary of Energy, in coordination with the
Administrator of General Services, shall make available through the
Task Force, within 180 days of the date of this order:
- the national list of qualified water and energy
efficiency contractors for inclusion on a Federal schedule; and
- a model provision on energy efficiency and water
conservation, for inclusion in new leasing contracts.
- Within 180 days of the date of this order, the
Administrator of General Services shall:
- contact each utility that has an area-wide contract
with GSA to determine which of those utilities will perform "no-cost"
audits for energy efficiency and water conservation and potential
solar and other renewable energy sources that comply with Federal
life cycle costing procedures set forth in Subpart A, 10 CFR 436;
- for each energy and water utility serving the Federal
Government, determine which of those utilities offers demand-side
management services and incentives and obtain a list and description
of those services and incentives; and
- prepare a list of those utilities and make that list
available to all Federal property management agencies through the
- Within 18 months of the date of this order, the
Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Secretary
of Energy, shall develop procurement techniques, methods, and
contracts to speed the purchase and installation of energy, water,
and renewable energy technologies in Federal facilities. Such
techniques, methods, and contracts shall be designed to utilize both
direct funding by the user agency, including energy savings
performance contracting, and utility rebates. To the extent
permitted by law, the Administrator of OFPP shall assist the
Administrator of General Services and the Secretary of Energy by
eliminating unnecessary regulatory and procedural barriers that would
slow the implementation of such methods, techniques, or contracts or
complicate their use.
- Agencies are encouraged to seek technical assistance from
DOE to develop and implement solar and other renewable energy
- DOE shall conduct appropriate training for Federal agencies
to assist them in identifying and funding cost- effective projects.
This training shall include providing software and other technical
tools to audit facilities and identify opportunities. To the extent
that resources are available, DOE shall work with utilities and the
private sector to encourage their participation in Federal sector programs.
- DOE, in coordination with EPA, GSA, and the Department of
Defense ("DOD"), shall develop technical assistance services for
agencies to help identify energy efficiency, water conser- vation,
indoor air quality, solar and other renewable energy projects, new
building design, fuel switching, and life cycle cost analysis. These
services shall include, at a minimum, a help line, computer bulletin
board, information and education materials, and project tracking
methods. Agencies shall identify technical assistance needed to meet
the goals and requirements of the Act and this order and seek such
assistance from DOE.
- The Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of General
Services shall explore ways to stimulate energy efficiency, water
conservation, and use of solar and other renewable energy sources and
shall study options such as new building performance guidelines, life
cycle value engineering, and designer/builder incentives such as
award fees. The studies shall be completed within 270 days of the
date of this order. The OFPP will issue guidance to agencies on life
cycle value engineering within 6 months of the completion of the
- The Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of General
Services shall develop and distribute through the Task Force a model
building commissioning program within 270 days of the date of this
- The lists, guidelines, and services in this section of the
order shall be updated periodically.
Sec. 502. Retention of Savings and Rebates. (a) Within a
reasonable time after the date of this order, the Director of OMB,
along with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense, and the
Administrator of General Services, to the extent practicable and
permitted by law, shall develop guide- lines and implement procedures
to allow agencies, in fiscal year 1995 and beyond, to retain utility
rebates and incentives received by the agency and savings from energy
efficiency and water conservation efforts as provided in section 152
of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 10 U.S.C. 2865 and 2866.
Sec. 503. Performance Evaluations. To recognize the
responsibilities of facility managers, designers, energy managers,
their superiors, and, to the extent practicable and appropriate,
others critical to the implementation of this order, heads of
agencies shall include successful implementation of energy
efficiency, water conservation, and solar and other renewable energy
projects in their position descriptions and performance evaluations.
Sec. 504. Incentive Awards. Agencies are encouraged to review
employee incentive programs to ensure that such programs
appropriately reward exceptional performance in implementing the Act
and this order. Such awards may include monetary incentives such as
Quality Step Increases, leave time awards and productivity
gainsharing, and nonmonetary and honor awards such as increased
authority, additional resources, and a series of options from which
employees or teams of employees can choose.
Sec. 505. Project Teams/Franchising.
- Agencies are
encouraged to establish Energy Efficiency and Environmental Project
Teams ("Project Teams") to implement energy efficiency, water
conservation, and solar and other renewable energy projects within
their respective agencies. DOE shall develop a program to train and
support the Project Teams, which should have particular expertise in
innovative financing, including shared energy savings and energy
savings performance con- tracting. The purpose of the program is to
enable project teams to implement projects quickly and effectively in
their own agencies.
- Agencies are encouraged to franchise the services of their
Project Teams. The ability to access the services of other agencies'
teams will foster excellence in project implementation through
competition among service providers, while providing an alternative
method to meet or exceed the requirements of the Act and this order
for agencies that are unable to devote sufficient personnel to
Sec. 506. FEMP Account Managers. FEMP shall develop a
customer service program and assign account managers to agencies or
regions so that each project may have a designated account manager.
When requested by an agency, the account manager shall start at the
audit phase and follow a project through commissioning, evaluation,
and reporting. The account manager shall provide technical
assistance and shall have responsibility to see that all actions
possible are taken to ensure success of the project.
Sec. 507. Procurement of Energy Efficient Products by Federal
- "Best Practice" Technologies. Agencies shall
purchase energy-efficient products in accordance with the guidelines
issued by OMB, in consultation with the Defense Logistics Agency
("DLA"), DOE, and GSA, under section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of
1992. The guidelines shall include listings of energy-efficient
products and practices used in the Federal Government. At a minimum,
OMB shall update the listings annually. DLA, DOE, and GSA shall
update the portions of the listings for which they have
responsibility as new products become available and conditions
- Each agency shall purchase products listed as energy-
efficient in the guidelines whenever practicable, and whenever they
meet the agency's specific performance requirements and are cost-
effective. Each agency shall institute mechanisms to set targets and
- To further encourage a market for highly-energy-
efficient products, each agency shall increase, to the extent
practicable and cost-effective, purchases of products that are in the
upper 25 percent of energy efficiency for all similar products, or
products that are at least 10 percent more efficient than the minimum
level that meets Federal standards. This requirement shall apply
wherever such information is available, either through Federal or
industry-approved testing and rating procedures.
- GSA and DLA, in consultation with DOE, other agencies,
States, and industry and other nongovernment organizations, shall
provide all agencies with information on specific products that meet
the energy-efficiency criteria of this section. Product information
should be made available in both printed and electronic formats.
- Federal Market Opportunities. DOE, after consultation with
industry, utilities, and other interested parties, shall identify
advanced energy-efficient and water-conserving technologies that are
technically and commercially feasible but not yet available on the
open market. These technologies may include, but are not limited to,
the advanced appliance technologies referenced in section 127 of the
Energy Policy Act of 1992. DOE, in cooperation with OMB, GSA, DOD,
the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"), and EPA,
shall issue a "Federal Procurement Challenge" inviting each Federal
agency to commit a specified fraction of their purchases within a
given time period to advanced, high-efficiency models of products,
provided that these anticipated future products can meet the agency's
energy performance, functionality, and cost requirements.
- Accelerated Retirement of Inefficient Equipment. DOE, in
consultation with GSA and other agencies, shall establish guidelines
for the cost-effective early retirement of older, inefficient
appliances and other energy and water- using equipment in Federal
facilities. Such guidelines may take into account significant
improvements in energy efficiency and water conservation,
opportunities to down-size or otherwise optimize the replacement
equipment as a result of associated improvements in building
envelope, system, or industrial process efficiency and reductions in
pollutant emissions, use of chlorofluorocarbons, and other
- Review of Barriers. Each agency shall review and revise
Federal or military specifications, product descriptions, and
standards to eliminate barriers to, and encourage Federal procurement
of, products that are energy-efficient or water conserving.
PART 6 - WAIVERS
Sec. 601. Waivers. Each agency may determine whether certain
requirements in this order are inconsistent with the mission of the
agency and seek a waiver of the provision from the Secretary of
Energy. Any waivers authorized by the Secretary of Energy shall be
included in the annual report on Federal energy management required
under the Act.
PART 7 - REVOCATION, LIMITATION, AND IMPLEMENTATION
Sec. 701. Executive Order No. 12759, of April 17, 1991, is
hereby revoked, except that sections 3, 9, and 10 of that order shall
remain effective and shall not be revoked.
Sec. 702. This order is intended only to improve the internal
management of the executive branch and is not intended to, and does
not create, any right to administrative or judicial review, or any
other right or benefit or trust responsibility, substantive or
procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its
agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any
Sec. 703. This order shall be effective immediately.
WILLIAM J. CLINTON
THE WHITE HOUSE,
March 8, 1994.