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National Gambling Impact Study Commission Final Report




TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

THE EXPANSION OF LEGALIZED GAMBLING
IMPACT AND CONTROVERSY
A Moving Target
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
No Master Plan
THE LACK OF INFORMATION
Time for a Pause

CHAPTER 2. GAMBLING IN THE UNITED STATES

LOTTERIES
Growth of Lotteries
Types of Lottery Games
The Contradictory Role of State Governments
CONVENIENCE GAMBLING AND STAND-ALONE ELECTRONIC GAMBLING DEVICES
Issues
CASINOS
RIVERBOAT CASINOS
NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL GAMBLING
PARI-MUTUEL WAGERING
The Horse-Racing Industry
The Greyhound Industry
Jai Alai
Issues
EGD's and the Pari-Mutuel Industry
SIMULCASTING AND ACCOUNT WAGERING
SPORTS WAGERING
Issues
INTERNET

CHAPTER 3. GAMBLING REGULATION

GOVERNMENTS SET THE RULES
GAMBLING AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST
REGULATING GAMBLING
The Federal Role
THE STATE ROLE
Lotteries
CASINOS
Administrative Structure
PARI-MUTUEL GAMBLING
Administrative Structure
SPORTS WAGERING
Despite Being Widespread, Most Sports Wagering Is Illegal
What Is Being Done and What Can Be Done
CONVENIENCE GAMBLING AND STAND-ALONE ELECTRONIC GAMBLING DEVICES
ADVERTISING
Supporting a Restriction on Advertising
The Foundation for the Ban: The Federal Communications Act
Is the Ban an Indirect Gambling Regulation
The New Orleans Case
Interpretations of New Orleans
Lottery Advertising
Time for an Advertising 'Pause'
RECOMMENDATIONS
ATTACHMENT A. A "BEST PRACTICES" MODEL FOR CASINOS
ATTCHMENT B. NASPL ADVERTISING STANDARDS
ATTACHMENT C. "BEST PRACTICES" PARADIGM FOR ADVERTISING AND MARKETING

CHAPTER 4. PROBLEM AND PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING

THE RESEARCH
Risk Factors for Problem and Pathological Gambling
ESTIMATING THE PREVALENCE
The Commission's Research Findings
CHARACTERISTICS OF PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLERS
UNDER-AGE PROBLEM GAMBLING
THE COSTS OF PROBLEM GAMBLING
The Costs to Problem and Pathological Gamblers
The Costs to Society
TREATING THE PROBLEM
Private Sector Efforts
Casino Questionnaire
Non-Profit and Other Efforts
Government Response
State Efforts
Tribal Government Efforts
Federal Efforts
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 5. INTERNET GAMBLING

THE EMERGENCE OF INTERNET GAMBLING
TYPES OF INTERNET GAMBLING SITES
CANDIDATES FOR PROHIBITION
Youth Gambling
Pathological Gamblers
Criminal Use
STATE OF THE LAW: THE APPLICABILITY OF 18 U.S.C. 1084
REGULATION OR PROHIBITION?
State Efforts
Native American Internet Gambling
AN ENHANCED FEDERAL ROLE AT STATE REQUEST
Federal Efforts
OTHER ACTIONS
OBSTACLES TO REGULATION
RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 6. NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL GAMBLING

GROWTH OF TRIBAL GAMBLING
TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY AND INDIAN GAMBLING
Federal Policy: Failure of the "Trust Responsibility" and the Alternative Revenue Source to Indian Gambling
The Move Toward Self-Determination
Review of Regulations
Class II Tribal/Federal (NIGC) Regulation
Class III Tribal/State Regulation
Eleventh Amendment Immunity for States
State Criticism of IGRA
Mechanism for Handling Impasse Between Tribes and States
Other Mechanisms
LOCAL COMMUNITY IMPACTS
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
EMPLOYMENT LAWS AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS
OTHER ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION
Taxation
Exclusivity Payments
Off-Reservation Gambling
Class II "Megabingos"
RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 7. GAMBLING'S IMPACTS ON PEOPLE AND PLACES

DETERMINING THE IMPACT OF GAMBLING
GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT
Pari-Mutuel
Native American Tribal Government Gambling
Other Gambling Industries
A Careful Look at Economic Benefits
Crime
FINANCIAL AND CREDIT ISSUES
OTHER ECONOMIC IMPACTS
LOCAL EFFECTS
THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF GAMBLING
PROBLEM AND PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING
ADOLESCENT GAMBLING
RESPONDING TO ADOLESCENT GAMBLING
SUICIDE
DIVORCE
HOMELESSNESS
ABUSE AND NEGLECT
LOCAL EFFECT
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 8. FUTURE RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDICES

I. COMMISSIONER MEMBERS' STATEMENTS

II. COMMISSION MEMBERS

Kay C. James, Chair
William A. Bible
James C. Dobson, Ph.D.
J. Terrence Lanni
Richard C. Leone
Robert W. Loescher
Leo T. McCarthy
Paul Harold Moore, M.D.
John W. Wilhelm

III. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

IV. NATIONAL GAMBLING IMPACT STUDY COMMISSION ACT Public Law 104-169

V. LIST OF REFERENCES

VI. SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND RESOURCES ON GAMBLING

VII. GLOSSARY

VIII. CATALOG OF GAMBLING LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND ORDINANCES

List of Tribal-State Compacts
Federal, State, and Local Laws, Regulations, and Ordinances